Infertility in men can be caused by different factors and is typically evaluated by a semen analysis. When a semen analysis is performed, the number of sperm (concentration), motility (movement), and morphology (shape) are assessed by a specialist. A slightly abnormal semen analysis does not mean that a man is necessarily infertile. Instead, a semen analysis helps determine if and how male factors are contributing to infertility.

Oral drugs used to stimulate ovulation include clomiphene citrate and aromatase inhibitors. While taking these drugs, you will be monitored to see if and when ovulation occurs. This can be done by tracking your menstrual cycle or with an ovulation-predictor kit (an at-home urine test). You may be asked to visit your doctor for a blood test or ultrasound exam.
Diminished ovarian reserveexternal icon (DOR). Women are born with all of the eggs that they will ever have, and a woman’s egg count decreases over time. Diminished ovarian reserve is a condition in which there are fewer eggs remaining in the ovaries than normal. The number of eggs a woman has declines naturally as a woman ages. It may also occur due to congenital, medical, surgical, or unexplained causes. Women with diminished ovarian reserve may be able to conceive naturally, but will produce fewer eggs in response to fertility treatments. 
Irregular or abnormal ovulation in a woman is responsible for about 25 percent of all female infertility problems. In roughly 40 percent of infertile couples, the male is either the sole cause or a contributing cause of the couple’s infertility. (14) A man may not be producing enough sperm, or the sperm make may be too slow or oddly shaped. Thus, it can be a problem of quantity or quality, or both.
The emotional strain and stress that comes with infertility in the household can lead to the mistreatment and domestic abuse of a woman. The devaluation of a wife due to her inability to conceive can lead to domestic abuse and emotional trauma such as victim blaming. Women are sometimes or often blamed as the cause of a couples' infertility, which can lead to emotional abuse, anxiety, and shame.[63] In addition, blame for not being able to conceive is often put on the female, even if it is the man who is infertile.[62] Women who are not able to conceive can be starved, beaten, and may be neglected financially by her husband as if she had no child bearing use to him.[66] The physical abuse related to infertility may result from this and the emotional stress that comes with it. In some countries, the emotional and physical abuses that come with infertility can potentially lead to assault, murder, and suicide.[70]
In addition to keeping stress levels low, getting adequate sleep is vitally important at improving fertility. The average woman (30 to 60 years old) gets only six hours and 41 minutes of sleep during the work week, according to the National Sleep Foundation. Research has shown that not clocking enough hours of sleep each night can negatively impact your ability to conceive.
Engaging in Burst training and weight training is the best way to exercise to effectively balance your hormones. Exercising regularly also promotes a healthy waistline, which will help your chances of conceiving. I caution you against long-distance cardio exercising or anything overly strenuous, as studies have shown that working out too hard can cause problems with hormones and fertility. Researchers have found that physical activity at both very high or very low levels negatively affects fertility, while moderate activity is beneficial. (10)
Twelve percent of all infertility cases are a result of a woman either being underweight or overweight. Fat cells produce estrogen,[13] in addition to the primary sex organs. Too much body fat causes production of too much estrogen and the body begins to react as if it is on birth control, limiting the odds of getting pregnant.[9] Too little body fat causes insufficient production of estrogen and disruption of the menstrual cycle.[9] Both under and overweight women have irregular cycles in which ovulation does not occur or is inadequate.[9] Proper nutrition in early life is also a major factor for later fertility.[14]
Tobacco smoking is harmful to the ovaries, and the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes or is exposed to a smoke-filled environment. Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body’s ability to create estrogen, a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation. Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.[8] Some damage is irreversible, but stopping smoking can prevent further damage.[9][10] Smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.[11] Smoking reduces the chances of IVF producing a live birth by 34% and increases the risk of an IVF pregnancy miscarrying by 30%.[11] Also, female smokers have an earlier onset of menopause by approximately 1–4 years.[12]
Engaging in Burst training and weight training is the best way to exercise to effectively balance your hormones. Exercising regularly also promotes a healthy waistline, which will help your chances of conceiving. I caution you against long-distance cardio exercising or anything overly strenuous, as studies have shown that working out too hard can cause problems with hormones and fertility. Researchers have found that physical activity at both very high or very low levels negatively affects fertility, while moderate activity is beneficial. (10)
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and embryos are handled outside of the body. In general, ART procedures involve removing mature eggs from a woman’s ovaries using a needle, combining the eggs with sperm in the laboratory, and returning the embryos to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman. The main type of ART is in vitro fertilization (IVF).
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Associationexternal icon – RESOLVE is a national consumer organization that offers support for men and women dealing with infertility. Their purpose is to provide timely, compassionate support and information to people who are experiencing infertility and to increase awareness of infertility issues through public education and advocacy.
In certain patients, blastocyst culturing allows optimal selection of embryos for transfer and an increased implant rate. However, this technology may not necessarily increase your chance for pregnancy. The main advantage is that fewer embryos may be transferred to eliminate the possibility of triplet and quadruplet pregnancies, while maintaining a high pregnancy rate.
In many cases, a woman who cannot bear children is excluded from social and cultural events including traditional ceremonies. This stigmatization is seen in Mozambique and Nigeria where infertile women have been treated as outcasts to society.[63] This is a humiliating practice which devalues infertile women in society.[67][68] In the Makua tradition, pregnancy and birth are considered major life events for a woman, with the ceremonies of nthaa´ra and ntha´ara no mwana, which can only be attended by women who have been pregnant and have had a baby.[67]
Women who never have pregnancies have an increased risk of ovarian tumors, so it may be related to the underlying problem rather than the treatment. Since success rates are typically higher in the first few treatment cycles, re-evaluating medication use every few months and concentrating on the treatments that have the most success appear to be appropriate.
Irregular or abnormal ovulation in a woman is responsible for about 25 percent of all female infertility problems. In roughly 40 percent of infertile couples, the male is either the sole cause or a contributing cause of the couple’s infertility. (14) A man may not be producing enough sperm, or the sperm make may be too slow or oddly shaped. Thus, it can be a problem of quantity or quality, or both.
Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility. 
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