ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who can not produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm is sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby. An infertile woman or couple may also use donor embryos. These are embryos that were either created by couples in infertility treatment or were created from donor sperm and donor eggs. The donated embryo is transferred to the uterus. The child will not be genetically related to either parent.
There is no unanimous definition of female infertility, because the definition depends on social and physical characteristics which may vary by culture and situation. NICE guidelines state that: "A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner."[47] It is recommended that a consultation with a fertility specialist should be made earlier if the woman is aged 36 years or over, or there is a known clinical cause of infertility or a history of predisposing factors for infertility.[47] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility can be described as the inability to become pregnant, maintain a pregnancy, or carry a pregnancy to live birth.[56] A clinical definition of infertility by the WHO and ICMART is “a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.” [57] Infertility can further be broken down into primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility refers to the inability to give birth either because of not being able to become pregnant, or carry a child to live birth, which may include miscarriage or a stillborn child. [58][59] Secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive or give birth when there was a previous pregnancy or live birth.[59][58]
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Ovulation can be predicted by using an ovulation predictor kit and can be confirmed by a blood test to check the woman’s progesterone level on day 21 of her menstrual cycle. Although several tests exist to evaluate a woman’s ovarian function, no single test is a perfect predictor of fertility. The most commonly used markers of ovarian function include follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) value on day 3 to 5 of the menstrual cycle, anti-müllerian hormone value (AMH), and antral follicle count (AFC) using a transvaginal ultrasound.
Maca root is an effective herb for promoting fertility. It stimulates the production of reproductive hormones which helps in boosting your fertility. It is also helpful in treating hypothyroidism as it promotes better functioning of the thyroid gland. Take a quarter teaspoon of powdered maca root and add it to a glass of warm milk. You may use warm water in place of milk. Consume it once every day for several months. Avoid taking maca root if you are already pregnant.

Hypothalamic dysfunction. Two hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt production of these hormones and affect ovulation. Irregular or absent periods are the most common signs.
Assisted reproductive technology. This involves retrieving mature eggs from a woman, fertilizing them with a man's sperm in a dish in a lab, then transferring the embryos into the uterus after fertilization. IVF is the most effective assisted reproductive technology. An IVF cycle takes several weeks and requires frequent blood tests and daily hormone injections.
Maca root is an effective herb for promoting fertility. It stimulates the production of reproductive hormones which helps in boosting your fertility. It is also helpful in treating hypothyroidism as it promotes better functioning of the thyroid gland. Take a quarter teaspoon of powdered maca root and add it to a glass of warm milk. You may use warm water in place of milk. Consume it once every day for several months. Avoid taking maca root if you are already pregnant.
If a Rh-negative woman conceives a Rh-positive baby, she is exposed to Rh protein, which is a blood group protein present on the surface of your cells. The first baby is delivered normally. For the next Rh positive baby, the mother has antibodies which destroy the baby at an early stage. However, this is debatable whether it is an infertility issue any longer. It is secondary infertility only when the woman is unaware of it. Otherwise, the female is fertile.
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