Sub-Saharan Africa has had decreasing levels of primary infertility from 1990 to 2010. Within the Sub-Saharan region, rates were lowest in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Rwanda, while the highest rates were in Guinea, Mozambique, Angola, Gabon, and Cameroon along with Northern Africa near the Middle East.[2] According to a 2004 DHS report, rates in Africa were highest in Middle and Sub-Saharan Africa, with East Africa’s rates close behind.[59]
Research has shown that stress has a direct impact on a woman’s risk for infertility. One study measured the levels of an enzyme linked with stress in the saliva of women who were trying to get pregnant over a one-year time span. The enzyme is alpha-amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest carbohydrates that’s also linked to the fight-or-flight stress response.
Wealth is sometimes measured by the number of children a woman has, as well as inheritance of property.[63][66] Children can influence financial security in many ways. In Nigeria and Cameroon, land claims are decided by the number of children. Also, in some Sub-Saharan countries women may be denied inheritance if she did not bear any children [66] In some African and Asian countries a husband can deprive his infertile wife of food, shelter and other basic necessities like clothing.[66] In Cameroon, a woman may lose access to land from her husband and left on her own in old age.[63]
Artificial insemination (AI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) are other popular female infertility treatments. Insemination is used in a variety of common situations, like when your partner’s sperm isn’t able to fertilize your egg. Artificial insemination is less expensive than other high-tech types of female infertility treatment, and the success rates are quite high.
In general, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one year (or longer) of unprotected sex. Because fertility in women is known to decline steadily with age, some providers evaluate and treat women aged 35 years or older after 6 months of unprotected sex. Women with infertility should consider making an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist—a doctor who specializes in managing infertility. Reproductive endocrinologists may also be able to help women with recurrent pregnancy loss, defined as having two or more spontaneous miscarriages.
Premature ovarian insufficiencyexternal icon (POI). POI, sometimes referred to as premature menopause, occurs when a woman’s ovaries fail before she is 40 years of age. Although certain exposures, such as chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions may cause POI, the cause is often unexplained. About 5% to10% of women with POI conceive naturally and have a normal pregnancy.
ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who can not produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm is sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby. An infertile woman or couple may also use donor embryos. These are embryos that were either created by couples in infertility treatment or were created from donor sperm and donor eggs. The donated embryo is transferred to the uterus. The child will not be genetically related to either parent.
Infertility is a condition that affects approximately 1 out of every 6 couples. An infertility diagnosis is given to a couple that has been unsuccessful in efforts to conceive over the course of one full year. When the cause of infertility exists within the female partner, it is referred to as female infertility. Female infertility factors contribute to approximately 50% of all infertility cases, and female infertility alone accounts for approximately one-third of all infertility cases.
Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.
There are a variety of baby-boosting medicines that you can take for female infertility treatment. Before prescribing these fertility pills, your doctor will determine if you are ovulating and whether your ovaries are producing follicles. Using a variety of different tests, your doctor will check to see if your uterine lining is functioning normally and whether your luteal phases are normal, among other things.

Why is sleep so important to getting pregnant? There are actually multiple reasons. Sleeping (or not sleeping) has a powerful effect on your body’s hormonal system. If you don’t get enough sleep, then your cycle as well as ovulation can get thrown off. If you don’t get enough shut-eye, your leptin (appetite hormone) levels typically go down, and this can negatively impact ovulation as well. People who have serious sleep problems, like insomniacs, also tend to have higher levels of stress hormones, which is not encouraging of fertility. (9)
Research has shown that stress has a direct impact on a woman’s risk for infertility. One study measured the levels of an enzyme linked with stress in the saliva of women who were trying to get pregnant over a one-year time span. The enzyme is alpha-amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest carbohydrates that’s also linked to the fight-or-flight stress response.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) means fertilization outside of the body. IVF is the most effective ART. It is often used when a woman's fallopian tubes are blocked or when a man produces too few sperm. Doctors treat the woman with a drug that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Once mature, the eggs are removed from the woman. They are put in a dish in the lab along with the man's sperm for fertilization. After 3 to 5 days, healthy embryos are implanted in the woman's uterus.
Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples.[23] ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are disturbance of normal immunoregulatory mechanisms, infection, violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, accidental rape and unprotected oral or anal sex.[23][24]
A 2018 study published by JAMA Internal Medicine conducted a diet assessment analysis of 325 women who received fertility treatments. This diet assessment analyzed the concentrated amount of pesticide found on the fruits and vegetables the women ingested. The main outcome from this study highlighted that the women who received fertility treatments and ingested fruits and vegetables with higher concentrations of pesticides were 18 percent less likely to have successful clinical pregnancies and 26 less likely to have live births. (13)
Hypothalamic dysfunction. Two hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt production of these hormones and affect ovulation. Irregular or absent periods are the most common signs.

Female infertility varies widely by geographic location around the world. In 2010, there was an estimated 48.5 million infertile couples worldwide, and from 1990 to 2010 there was little change in levels of infertility in most of the world.[2] In 2010, the countries with the lowest rates of female infertility included the South American countries of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, as well as in Poland, Kenya, and Republic of Korea.[2] The highest rate regions included Eastern Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Oceania, and Sub-Saharan Africa.[2] The prevalence of primary infertility has increased since 1990, but secondary infertility has decreased overall. Rates decreased (although not prevalence) of female infertility in high-income, Central/Eastern Europe, and Central Asia regions.[2]

About 1 in 4 cases of infertility include problems with tubal factors. Tubal reconstructive surgery can help many women conceive, despite tubal issues. Tubal surgery can reduce scar tissue build-up in the fallopian tubes, restoring tubal health and fertility. This surgery can help many women with endometriosis, a condition that causes fertility problems for 1 in 3 infertile women. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is another option for women with tubal problems. During IVF, your fertility doctor extracts healthy eggs from your ovaries, fertilizes them in a lab setting, and then transfers a healthy embryo directly into your uterus. This fertility treatment can help you get pregnant by bypassing your fallopian tubes altogether.

Depending on a woman’s symptoms, the uterusexternal icon may be evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound to look for fibroidsexternal icon or other anatomic abnormalities. If suspicion exists that the fibroids may be entering the endometrial cavity, a sonohystogram (SHG) or hysteroscopy (HSC) may be performed to further evaluate the uterine environment.
The rise of infertility in men and women today is a sad but real problem. It is quite surprising to know that people are getting into seminars and exploring the web to know how much they have to spend on infertility treatments monthly and annually. The depressing part is that in some cases, even when the patients pay hefty money they still failed by the fertility procedures due to improper cures.
In many cases, a woman who cannot bear children is excluded from social and cultural events including traditional ceremonies. This stigmatization is seen in Mozambique and Nigeria where infertile women have been treated as outcasts to society.[63] This is a humiliating practice which devalues infertile women in society.[67][68] In the Makua tradition, pregnancy and birth are considered major life events for a woman, with the ceremonies of nthaa´ra and ntha´ara no mwana, which can only be attended by women who have been pregnant and have had a baby.[67]
Improper function of the hypothalamus or pituitary glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that maintain normal testicular function. Production of too much prolactin, a hormone made by the pituitary gland (often due to the presence of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or other conditions that damage or impair the function of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may result in low or no sperm production.
^ Zegers-Hochschild F.; Adamson G.D.; de Mouzon J.; Ishihara O.; Mansour R.; Nygren K.; Sullivan E.; van der Poel S. (2009). "The International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Revised Glossary on ART Terminology, 2009". Human Reproduction. 24 (11): 2683–2687. doi:10.1093/humrep/dep343. PMID 19801627.
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