Recent research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed that ART babies are two to four times more likely to have certain kinds of birth defects. These may include heart and digestive system problems, and cleft (divided into two pieces) lips or palate. Researchers don't know why this happens. The birth defects may not be due to the technology. Other factors, like the age of the parents, may be involved. More research is needed. The risk is relatively low, but parents should consider this when making the decision to use ART.
Female infertility refers to infertility in women. It affects an estimated 48 million women,[2] with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia.[2] Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.
Approximately 10% of infertile couples are affected by endometriosis.  Endometriosis affects five million US women, 6-7% of all females.  In fact, 30-40% of patients with endometriosis are infertile.  This is two to three times the rate of infertility in the general population.  For women with endometriosis, the monthly fecundity (chance of getting pregnant) diminishes by 12 to 36%.  This condition is characterized by excessive growth of the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium.  Growth occurs not only in the uterus but also elsewhere in the abdomen, such as in the fallopian tubes, ovaries and the pelvic peritoneum.  A positive diagnosis can only be made by diagnostic laparoscopy, a test that allows the physician to view the uterus, fallopian tubes, and pelvic cavity directly.  The symptoms often associated with endometriosis include heavy, painful and long menstrual periods, urinary urgency, rectal bleeding and premenstrual spotting.  Sometimes, however, there are no symptoms at all, owing to the fact that there is no correlation between the extent of the disease and the severity of the symptoms.  The long term cumulative pregnancy rates are normal in patients with minimal endometriosis and normal anatomy.  Current studies demonstrate that pregnancy rates are not improved by treating minimal endometriosis.
Acute stress levels:Infertility tests and treatments are exhaustive. A woman often swings between hope and despair leading to acute stress levels. High stress also affects the ability to focus and remember things. Both emotional and physiological stress further hampers the body. Studies show that an infertile woman undergoes the same level of stress as that of an HIV or a cancer patient. Fertility drugs also cause forgetfulness.
About 25% of women with infertility have infrequent or absent ovulation. These women usually have irregular periods or no periods at all. Ovulation can be disrupted by changes in the way certain hormones are released from the hypothalamus (a part of your brain, releasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) and the pituitary gland (a gland near the base of your brain, releasing luteinizing hormone [LH]). LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signal an egg to develop and be released from the ovary.

Acute stress levels:Infertility tests and treatments are exhaustive. A woman often swings between hope and despair leading to acute stress levels. High stress also affects the ability to focus and remember things. Both emotional and physiological stress further hampers the body. Studies show that an infertile woman undergoes the same level of stress as that of an HIV or a cancer patient. Fertility drugs also cause forgetfulness.

The next step is usually a pelvic exam to make sure your reproductive tract (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) is normal and blood tests to measure your hormone levels. Your partner will also have a semen analysis and medical history. Depending on what these tests find, your doctor may do further tests, including one to make sure your fallopian tubes are not blocked.
There are risk factors for infertility, many of which are under your control. One you can’t control is your age, and unfortunately, the older a women gets, the harder it can be to conceive due to a decrease in the quality and quantity of eggs. The other risk factors are all under your control: poor diet, stress, smoking, being overweight, thyroid disorders, heavy alcohol consumption and contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
The prevalence of female infertility in the Latin America/Caribbean region is typically lower than the global prevalence. However, the greatest rates occurred in Jamaica, Suriname, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago. Central and Western Latin America has some of the lowest rates of prevalence.[2] The highest regions in Latin America and the Caribbean was in the Caribbean Islands and in less developed countries.[59]
Men and women can also turn to divorce in attempt to find a new partner with whom to bear a child. Infertility in many cultures is a reason for divorce, and a way for a man or woman to increase his/her chances of producing an heir.[63][65][67][69] When a woman is divorced, she can lose her security that often comes with land, wealth, and a family.[69] This can ruin marriages and can lead to distrust in the marriage. The increase of sexual partners can potentially result with the spread of disease including HIV/AIDS, and can actually contribute to future generations of infertility.[69]
Depending on your age or your fertility history, it may be time to consider female infertility treatment. Your fertility specialist or reproductive endocrinologist is educated in the latest research and patient care for female infertility treatment. The doctor can explain all the options available – from baby-boosting fertility pills or hormones to artificial insemination to high-tech assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization.
Blastocyst culturing is a technique to grow embryos beyond the third day of culture. Typically, we transfer embryos into the uterus about three days after the egg retrieval, which is several days earlier than would occur in nature. On the third day, embryos generally are between six to eight cells. We now have the ability to keep the embryos two additional days in a culturing material before implanting in the uterus. During this additional culture period, the embryos continue to grow to become "blastocysts."

Coeliac disease. Non-gastrointestinal symptoms of coeliac disease may include disorders of fertility, such as delayed menarche, amenorrea, infertility or early menopause; and pregnancy complications, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), small for gestational age (SGA) babies, recurrent abortions, preterm deliveries or low birth weight (LBW) babies. Nevertheless, gluten-free diet reduces the risk. Some authors suggest that physicians should investigate the presence of undiagnosed coeliac disease in women with unexplained infertility, recurrent miscarriage or IUGR.[27][28]
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