What is infertility? Primary, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year. Secondary infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant or to carry a pregnancy to term following the birth of one or more biological children. There can be many causes of infertility, including poor nutrition, emotional stress, sexually transmitted diseases, thyroid disorders, candida, medical conditions, eating disorders, excessive exercise, obesity, and hormonal problems.
Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.

Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.
Oral drugs used to stimulate ovulation include clomiphene citrate and aromatase inhibitors. While taking these drugs, you will be monitored to see if and when ovulation occurs. This can be done by tracking your menstrual cycle or with an ovulation-predictor kit (an at-home urine test). You may be asked to visit your doctor for a blood test or ultrasound exam.
Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.
Research has shown that stress has a direct impact on a woman’s risk for infertility. One study measured the levels of an enzyme linked with stress in the saliva of women who were trying to get pregnant over a one-year time span. The enzyme is alpha-amylase, an enzyme that helps the body digest carbohydrates that’s also linked to the fight-or-flight stress response.

Assisted reproductive technology. This involves retrieving mature eggs from a woman, fertilizing them with a man's sperm in a dish in a lab, then transferring the embryos into the uterus after fertilization. IVF is the most effective assisted reproductive technology. An IVF cycle takes several weeks and requires frequent blood tests and daily hormone injections.


If you’re a woman, you either already have or almost undoubtedly will hear the tick of your biological clock at some point in your life calling you to become a mother. What if that tick goes unanswered? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), millions of women in America suffer from infertility, with some 7.5 million between the ages of 15 and 44 having difficulty getting pregnant or staying pregnant. (1)
There are many genes wherein mutation causes female infertility, as shown in table below. Also, there are additional conditions involving female infertility which are believed to be genetic but where no single gene has been found to be responsible, notably Mayer-Rokitansky-Küstner-Hauser Syndrome (MRKH).[35] Finally, an unknown number of genetic mutations cause a state of subfertility, which in addition to other factors such as environmental ones may manifest as frank infertility.
The effect of infertility can lead to social shaming from internal and social norms surrounding pregnancy, which affects women around the world.[68] When pregnancy is considered such an important event in life, and considered a “socially unacceptable condition”, it can lead to a search for treatment in the form of traditional healers and expensive Western treatments.[65] The limited access to treatment in many areas can lead to extreme and sometimes illegal acts in order to produce a child.[63][65]
Initial diagnosis and treatment of infertility is usually made by obstetrician/gynecologists or women's health nurse practitioners. If initial treatments are unsuccessful, referral is usually made to physicians who are fellowship trained as reproductive endocrinologists. Reproductive endocrinologists are usually obstetrician/gynecologists with advanced training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility (in North America). These physicians treat reproductive disorders affecting not only women but also men, children, and teens.
What is infertility? Primary, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year. Secondary infertility is defined as the inability to become pregnant or to carry a pregnancy to term following the birth of one or more biological children. There can be many causes of infertility, including poor nutrition, emotional stress, sexually transmitted diseases, thyroid disorders, candida, medical conditions, eating disorders, excessive exercise, obesity, and hormonal problems.
×