Improper hormonal changes: Many women suffer from various problems during ovulation, the most common being when the release of an egg from the ovary and thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) in the preparation for the fertilized egg do not occur. The problems may be detected using body temperature charts, ovulation predictor kits and blood tests to detect hormone levels.
Clomiphene, taken as a pill, and FSH and LH hormone injections are the main treatment for women with ovulation disorders. Women with no clear cause of their infertility might also use these drugs. Pills like clomiphene or aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, used off-label) increases LH to induce ovulation. Injections of GnRH, LH, or FSH help mature eggs and induce ovulation. Sometimes doctors use drug treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI), when sperm are released into the uterus through a catheter (a thin flexible tube) inserted through the vagina. IUI is done at the time of ovulation.
Laparoscopy: This procedure involves looking at the outside lining of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tube by inserting a fiber-optic camera attached to a thin tube through an incision near the belly button. Laparoscopy helps doctors to look for abnormal growth in the pelvic region especially in the case of endometriosis which is caused due to the formation of endometriotic tissues in other parts of the body.
The technique involves very precise maneuvers to pick a single live sperm and inject it directly into the center of a human egg. The procedure requires that the female partner undergo ovarian stimulation with fertility medications so several mature eggs develop. These eggs are suctioned through the vagina, using vaginal ultrasound, and incubated under precise conditions in the embryology lab.
Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples. ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are disturbance of normal immunoregulatory mechanisms, infection, violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, accidental rape and unprotected oral or anal sex.
Some people can immediately feel the difference in their hormones (even though they may not know this is what it is) when they engage in exercise. The mood improves, they sleep better and they may even experience an increase in their sexual appetite. All of these changes occur with changes in hormones. For example, we often hear about the “feel good hormone” serotonin increasing with exercise.
Why is sleep so important to getting pregnant? There are actually multiple reasons. Sleeping (or not sleeping) has a powerful effect on your body’s hormonal system. If you don’t get enough sleep, then your cycle as well as ovulation can get thrown off. If you don’t get enough shut-eye, your leptin (appetite hormone) levels typically go down, and this can negatively impact ovulation as well. People who have serious sleep problems, like insomniacs, also tend to have higher levels of stress hormones, which is not encouraging of fertility. (9)