In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most commonly used type of ART. This female infertility treatment has a pregnancy success rate similar to the rates of couples trying to get pregnant without assistance. If your doctor recommends in vitro fertilization as female infertility treatment, read more about this procedure so you fully understand the amazing process.
ART can be expensive and time-consuming, but it has allowed many couples to have children that otherwise would not have been conceived. The most common complication of ART is a multiple pregnancy. This is a problem that can be prevented or minimized by limiting the number of embryos that are transferred back to the uterus. For example, transfer of a single embryo, rather than multiple embryos, greatly reduces the chances of a multiple pregnancy and its risks such as preterm birth.
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Associationexternal icon – RESOLVE is a national consumer organization that offers support for men and women dealing with infertility. Their purpose is to provide timely, compassionate support and information to people who are experiencing infertility and to increase awareness of infertility issues through public education and advocacy.
Hysterosalpingography. During hysterosalpingography (his-tur-o-sal-ping-GOG-ruh-fee), X-ray contrast is injected into your uterus and an X-ray is taken to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines whether the fluid passes out of the uterus and spills out of your fallopian tubes. If abnormalities are found, you'll likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing out and opening the fallopian tubes.
According to the International Chiropractic Pediatric Association, research shows that any misalignment in the spinal column can impact nerve impulses. When it comes to infertility, blocked neurological signals can seriously impact the pituitary as well as hypothalamus, creating problems with hormone balances that often lead to infertility problems. It’s vital to have a healthy spine in order to have a healthy reproductive system. (11)
A review from 2010 concluded that overweight and obese subfertile women have a reduced probability of successful fertility treatment and their pregnancies are associated with more complications and higher costs.[16] In hypothetical groups of 1,000 women undergoing fertility care, the study counted approximately 800 live births for normal weight and 690 live births for overweight and obese anovulatory women. For ovulatory women, the study counted approximately 700 live births for normal weight, 550 live births for overweight and 530 live births for obese women. The increase in cost per live birth in anovulatory overweight and obese women were, respectively, 54 and 100% higher than their normal weight counterparts, for ovulatory women they were 44 and 70% higher, respectively.[17]
Female infertility refers to infertility in women. It affects an estimated 48 million women,[2] with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia.[2] Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.

Male infertility may be treated with medical, surgical, or assisted reproductive therapies depending on the underlying cause. Medical and surgical therapies are usually managed by an urologist who specializes in infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may offer intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to help overcome male factor infertility.


Adhesions secondary to surgery in the peritoneal cavity is the leading cause of acquired infertility.[25] A meta-analysis in 2012 came to the conclusion that there is only little evidence for the surgical principle that using less invasive techniques, introducing less foreign bodies or causing less ischemia reduces the extent and severity of adhesions.[25]
About 25% of women with infertility have infrequent or absent ovulation. These women usually have irregular periods or no periods at all. Ovulation can be disrupted by changes in the way certain hormones are released from the hypothalamus (a part of your brain, releasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) and the pituitary gland (a gland near the base of your brain, releasing luteinizing hormone [LH]). LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signal an egg to develop and be released from the ovary.
There are many genes wherein mutation causes female infertility, as shown in table below. Also, there are additional conditions involving female infertility which are believed to be genetic but where no single gene has been found to be responsible, notably Mayer-Rokitansky-Küstner-Hauser Syndrome (MRKH).[35] Finally, an unknown number of genetic mutations cause a state of subfertility, which in addition to other factors such as environmental ones may manifest as frank infertility.

After determining what you might need to get pregnant, your doctor will prescribe female infertility treatment. Some fertility drugs help to trigger ovulation. Other fertility pills or hormones help prepare your uterus for pregnancy. Still other female infertility treatment helps to prevent premature ovulation and to enhance high-tech fertility treatments like IVF.


If a Rh-negative woman conceives a Rh-positive baby, she is exposed to Rh protein, which is a blood group protein present on the surface of your cells. The first baby is delivered normally. For the next Rh positive baby, the mother has antibodies which destroy the baby at an early stage. However, this is debatable whether it is an infertility issue any longer. It is secondary infertility only when the woman is unaware of it. Otherwise, the female is fertile.

Social stigma due to infertility is seen in many cultures throughout the world in varying forms. Often, when women cannot conceive, the blame is put on them, even when approximately 50% of infertility issues come from the man .[62] In addition, many societies only tend to value a woman if she is able to produce at least one child, and a marriage can be considered a failure when the couple cannot conceive.[62] The act of conceiving a child can be linked to the couple’s consummation of marriage, and reflect their social role in society.[63] This is seen in the "African infertility belt", where infertility is prevalent in Africa which includes countries spanning from Tanzania in the east to Gabon in the west.[62] In this region, infertility is highly stigmatized and can be considered a failure of the couple to their societies.[62][64] This is demonstrated in Uganda and Nigeria where there is a great pressure put on childbearing and its social implications.[63] This is also seen in some Muslim societies including Egypt [65] and Pakistan.[66]
Gonadotropins. Instead of stimulating the pituitary gland to release more hormones, these injected treatments stimulate the ovary directly to produce multiple eggs. Gonadotropin medications include human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Menopur) and FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim AQ, Bravelle). Another gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl), is used to mature the eggs and trigger their release at the time of ovulation. Concerns exist that there's a higher risk of conceiving multiples and having a premature delivery with gonadotropin use.
Female infertility refers to infertility in women. It affects an estimated 48 million women,[2] with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia.[2] Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.
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