Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10–30% of infertile couples.[23] ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are disturbance of normal immunoregulatory mechanisms, infection, violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, accidental rape and unprotected oral or anal sex.[23][24]


Any woman wishes to be a mother in their lives. However, there are some unlucky women who are difficult to be pregnant or they suffer from miscarriage many times. They fall in a problem which is called female infertility. Female infertility is defined as a situation in which a woman is unable or is difficult to conceive a baby after at least a year of regular intercourse without using any protective methods.

Women who never have pregnancies have an increased risk of ovarian tumors, so it may be related to the underlying problem rather than the treatment. Since success rates are typically higher in the first few treatment cycles, re-evaluating medication use every few months and concentrating on the treatments that have the most success appear to be appropriate.


Tobacco smoking is harmful to the ovaries, and the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes or is exposed to a smoke-filled environment. Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body’s ability to create estrogen, a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation. Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.[8] Some damage is irreversible, but stopping smoking can prevent further damage.[9][10] Smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.[11] Smoking reduces the chances of IVF producing a live birth by 34% and increases the risk of an IVF pregnancy miscarrying by 30%.[11] Also, female smokers have an earlier onset of menopause by approximately 1–4 years.[12]

Fennel seeds have a high medicinal value which makes it a great remedy for numerous ailments. It is also useful in improving fertility, especially in heavy-set women. Furthermore, fennel supports conception and helps in maintaining it. All you have to do is take 6 grams of powdered fennel seeds and mix it with 12 grams of butter. Consume this mixture every day for at least 3 months to see positive results.


Female infertility refers to infertility in women. It affects an estimated 48 million women,[2] with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia.[2] Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition, diseases, and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies.


Raspberry leaves can aid you in treating infertility. The leaves are full of tannins, flavonoids. Containing a high amount of calcium, it is good at keeping your uterus in a good condition, facilitating your chance of being pregnant. Furthermore, these leaves are full of antioxidants. All these allow raspberry leaves bring health benefits, such as easing inflammation, boosting the immune system, reducing digestive problems, etc. It is especially effective in improving fertility. It is because these leaves are useful in balancing your hormone and facilitating a woman to be pregnant.
The hypothalamus is the portion of the brain responsible for sending signals to the pituitary gland, which, in turn, sends hormonal stimuli to the ovaries in the form of FSH and LH to initiate egg maturation.  If the hypothalamus fails to trigger and control this process, immature eggs will result.  This is the cause of ovarian failure in 20% of cases.
In addition to medication and surgical infertility treatments to treat specific health conditions in men and women, a new class of treatments — called assisted reproductive technologies, or ART — has been developed. The most common ART is in vitro fertilization, or IVF, but new procedures can enhance the IVF process or address other infertility conditions. These procedures include:
In addition to keeping stress levels low, getting adequate sleep is vitally important at improving fertility. The average woman (30 to 60 years old) gets only six hours and 41 minutes of sleep during the work week, according to the National Sleep Foundation. Research has shown that not clocking enough hours of sleep each night can negatively impact your ability to conceive.

Improper hormonal changes: Many women suffer from various problems during ovulation, the most common being when the release of an egg from the ovary and thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) in the preparation for the fertilized egg do not occur. The problems may be detected using body temperature charts, ovulation predictor kits and blood tests to detect hormone levels.


Laparoscopy (lap-uh-ROS-kuh-pee): A minor surgery to see inside the abdomen. The doctor does this with a small tool with a light called a laparoscope (LAP-uh-roh-skohp). She or he makes a small cut in the lower abdomen and inserts the laparoscope. With the laparoscope, the doctor can check the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus for disease and physical problems. Doctors can usually find scarring and endometriosis by laparoscopy.
Depending on your age or your fertility history, it may be time to consider female infertility treatment. Your fertility specialist or reproductive endocrinologist is educated in the latest research and patient care for female infertility treatment. The doctor can explain all the options available – from baby-boosting fertility pills or hormones to artificial insemination to high-tech assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization.
Artificial insemination (AI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) are other popular female infertility treatments. Insemination is used in a variety of common situations, like when your partner’s sperm isn’t able to fertilize your egg. Artificial insemination is less expensive than other high-tech types of female infertility treatment, and the success rates are quite high.
Oral drugs used to stimulate ovulation include clomiphene citrate and aromatase inhibitors. While taking these drugs, you will be monitored to see if and when ovulation occurs. This can be done by tracking your menstrual cycle or with an ovulation-predictor kit (an at-home urine test). You may be asked to visit your doctor for a blood test or ultrasound exam.
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