In many cases, a woman who cannot bear children is excluded from social and cultural events including traditional ceremonies. This stigmatization is seen in Mozambique and Nigeria where infertile women have been treated as outcasts to society.[63] This is a humiliating practice which devalues infertile women in society.[67][68] In the Makua tradition, pregnancy and birth are considered major life events for a woman, with the ceremonies of nthaa´ra and ntha´ara no mwana, which can only be attended by women who have been pregnant and have had a baby.[67]
Embryo co-culturing was initiated in the IVF lab at UCSF Medical Center in 1999 to improve the quality of embryos prior to transfer into the womb. This technique has been used since 1996 in other centers. It involves using a buffalo rat liver cell line to secrete nutritional products that help growing embryos improve their chances for survival. This technique is only recommended to patients who have had unsuccessful IVF cycles with poor embryo quality.
Infertility in men can be caused by different factors and is typically evaluated by a semen analysis. When a semen analysis is performed, the number of sperm (concentration), motility (movement), and morphology (shape) are assessed by a specialist. A slightly abnormal semen analysis does not mean that a man is necessarily infertile. Instead, a semen analysis helps determine if and how male factors are contributing to infertility.
The prevalence of female infertility in the Latin America/Caribbean region is typically lower than the global prevalence. However, the greatest rates occurred in Jamaica, Suriname, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago. Central and Western Latin America has some of the lowest rates of prevalence.[2] The highest regions in Latin America and the Caribbean was in the Caribbean Islands and in less developed countries.[59]
About 25% of women with infertility have infrequent or absent ovulation. These women usually have irregular periods or no periods at all. Ovulation can be disrupted by changes in the way certain hormones are released from the hypothalamus (a part of your brain, releasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) and the pituitary gland (a gland near the base of your brain, releasing luteinizing hormone [LH]). LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) signal an egg to develop and be released from the ovary.
Any woman wishes to be a mother in their lives. However, there are some unlucky women who are difficult to be pregnant or they suffer from miscarriage many times. They fall in a problem which is called female infertility. Female infertility is defined as a situation in which a woman is unable or is difficult to conceive a baby after at least a year of regular intercourse without using any protective methods.

Epileptic: According to research conducted, reproductive abnormalities and infertility are two or three times more common in Epileptic females. This is because epileptic seizures can lead to an increase in the serum prolactin level and fluctuation in women’s reproductive hormones. Around 50% of the female population are reported to suffer from menstrual abnormalities and higher frequency of irregular ovulation cycle that adversely lead to pregnancy problems or infertility. New method of female infertility treatment can help to avert the pregnancy problems or complications.
Women who never have pregnancies have an increased risk of ovarian tumors, so it may be related to the underlying problem rather than the treatment. Since success rates are typically higher in the first few treatment cycles, re-evaluating medication use every few months and concentrating on the treatments that have the most success appear to be appropriate.
Why is sleep so important to getting pregnant? There are actually multiple reasons. Sleeping (or not sleeping) has a powerful effect on your body’s hormonal system. If you don’t get enough sleep, then your cycle as well as ovulation can get thrown off. If you don’t get enough shut-eye, your leptin (appetite hormone) levels typically go down, and this can negatively impact ovulation as well. People who have serious sleep problems, like insomniacs, also tend to have higher levels of stress hormones, which is not encouraging of fertility. (9) 
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