There is no unanimous definition of female infertility, because the definition depends on social and physical characteristics which may vary by culture and situation. NICE guidelines state that: "A woman of reproductive age who has not conceived after 1 year of unprotected vaginal sexual intercourse, in the absence of any known cause of infertility, should be offered further clinical assessment and investigation along with her partner."[47] It is recommended that a consultation with a fertility specialist should be made earlier if the woman is aged 36 years or over, or there is a known clinical cause of infertility or a history of predisposing factors for infertility.[47] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility can be described as the inability to become pregnant, maintain a pregnancy, or carry a pregnancy to live birth.[56] A clinical definition of infertility by the WHO and ICMART is “a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.” [57] Infertility can further be broken down into primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility refers to the inability to give birth either because of not being able to become pregnant, or carry a child to live birth, which may include miscarriage or a stillborn child. [58][59] Secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive or give birth when there was a previous pregnancy or live birth.[59][58]
Depending on your age or your fertility history, it may be time to consider female infertility treatment. Your fertility specialist or reproductive endocrinologist is educated in the latest research and patient care for female infertility treatment. The doctor can explain all the options available – from baby-boosting fertility pills or hormones to artificial insemination to high-tech assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization.

Adhesions secondary to surgery in the peritoneal cavity is the leading cause of acquired infertility.[25] A meta-analysis in 2012 came to the conclusion that there is only little evidence for the surgical principle that using less invasive techniques, introducing less foreign bodies or causing less ischemia reduces the extent and severity of adhesions.[25]

ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who cannot produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm are sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby. An infertile woman or couple may also use donor embryos. These are embryos that were either created by couples in infertility treatment or were created from donor sperm and donor eggs. The donated embryo is transferred to the uterus. The child will not be genetically related to either parent.


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Oral drugs used to stimulate ovulation include clomiphene citrate and aromatase inhibitors. While taking these drugs, you will be monitored to see if and when ovulation occurs. This can be done by tracking your menstrual cycle or with an ovulation-predictor kit (an at-home urine test). You may be asked to visit your doctor for a blood test or ultrasound exam.
There are risk factors for infertility, many of which are under your control. One you can’t control is your age, and unfortunately, the older a women gets, the harder it can be to conceive due to a decrease in the quality and quantity of eggs. The other risk factors are all under your control: poor diet, stress, smoking, being overweight, thyroid disorders, heavy alcohol consumption and contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
Depending on a woman’s symptoms, the uterusexternal icon may be evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound to look for fibroidsexternal icon or other anatomic abnormalities. If suspicion exists that the fibroids may be entering the endometrial cavity, a sonohystogram (SHG) or hysteroscopy (HSC) may be performed to further evaluate the uterine environment.
Chasteberry is also a natural method for treating your infertility effectively. Chasteberry is one of berries coming from Greece and Italy. According to some research, chasteberry is useful for balancing hormone level in the body.As you know, infertility is due to a change in hormones. This herb works so well in treating infertility due to this reason. It is a key answer to combat against polycystic ovarian syndrome. In other words, the berry can treat a number of reproductive problem as well as menstrual issues.
You can also utilize apple cider vinegar for treating infertility. The vinegar brings you a number of health benefits. Firstly, it can remove toxins out of your body. Secondly, it is good at balancing the hormones in your body. Furthermore, it can maintain pH level in your vagina, creating favorable conditions for you to be pregnant. Another benefit of apple cider vinegar is that it helps to prevent and treat your vaginal infection which is another reason for your infertility.
Stinging nettle is also listed as one of the excellent home remedies for female infertility that you should pay attention to. The effectiveness of this ingredient in treating infertility has been recognized by a number of herbalists. This herb is full of essential minerals which are health for your body. In addition, it gives a big hand in reducing stress which is one of the causes for preventing you from being pregnant.

A few yoga postures that help promote fertility include Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing), Bhramari Pranayama (Bee Breath), Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend), Hastapadasana (Standing Forward Bend), Janu Sirasana (Head-to-Knee Pose), Badha Konasana (Butterfly Pose), Viparita Karani (Legs-up-the-Wall Pose) and Yoga Nidra (Yogic Sleep).
Tobacco smoking is harmful to the ovaries, and the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes or is exposed to a smoke-filled environment. Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body’s ability to create estrogen, a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation. Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.[8] Some damage is irreversible, but stopping smoking can prevent further damage.[9][10] Smokers are 60% more likely to be infertile than non-smokers.[11] Smoking reduces the chances of IVF producing a live birth by 34% and increases the risk of an IVF pregnancy miscarrying by 30%.[11] Also, female smokers have an earlier onset of menopause by approximately 1–4 years.[12]
Gonadotropins. Instead of stimulating the pituitary gland to release more hormones, these injected treatments stimulate the ovary directly to produce multiple eggs. Gonadotropin medications include human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Menopur) and FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim AQ, Bravelle). Another gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl), is used to mature the eggs and trigger their release at the time of ovulation. Concerns exist that there's a higher risk of conceiving multiples and having a premature delivery with gonadotropin use.
Men in some countries may find another wife when their first cannot produce a child, hoping that by sleeping with more women he will be able to produce his own child.[63][65][66] This can be prevalent in some societies, including Cameroon,[63][66] Nigeria,[63] Mozambique,[67] Egypt,[65] Botswana,[69] and Bangladesh,[66] among many more where polygamy is more common and more socially acceptable.

Women who never have pregnancies have an increased risk of ovarian tumors, so it may be related to the underlying problem rather than the treatment. Since success rates are typically higher in the first few treatment cycles, re-evaluating medication use every few months and concentrating on the treatments that have the most success appear to be appropriate.


Laparoscopy. If you've been diagnosed with tubal or pelvic disease, one option is to get surgery to reconstruct your reproductive organs. Your doctor puts a laparoscope through a cut near your belly button to get rid of scar tissue, treat endometriosis, open blocked tubes, or remove ovarian cysts,  which are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the ovaries.
The prevalence of female infertility in the Latin America/Caribbean region is typically lower than the global prevalence. However, the greatest rates occurred in Jamaica, Suriname, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago. Central and Western Latin America has some of the lowest rates of prevalence.[2] The highest regions in Latin America and the Caribbean was in the Caribbean Islands and in less developed countries.[59] 

Cinnamon is also listed as one of the best home remedies for female infertility problems. Cinnamon is effective in keeping your ovarian function properly. Therefore, it is good at combating against infertility. In addition, it is an excellent solution to polycystic ovarian syndrome which causes you to be infertile. This ingredient is also a good answer to some health issues causing a woman to be unable to have a baby, namely uterine fibroids.
The hypothalamus is the portion of the brain responsible for sending signals to the pituitary gland, which, in turn, sends hormonal stimuli to the ovaries in the form of FSH and LH to initiate egg maturation.  If the hypothalamus fails to trigger and control this process, immature eggs will result.  This is the cause of ovarian failure in 20% of cases.

Radiation, such as in radiation therapy. The radiation dose to the ovaries that generally causes permanent female infertility is 20.3 Gy at birth, 18.4 Gy at 10 years, 16.5 Gy at 20 years and 14.3 Gy at 30 years.[32] After total body irradiation, recovery of gonadal function occurs in 10−14% of cases, and the number of pregnancies observed after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation involving such as procedure is lower than 2%.[33][34]
In Vito fertilization: It is a comprehensive and highly advanced procedure in order to assist the sperm and the egg. IVF is a technique of artificial insemination in which the egg and sperm are combined outside the body and then placed in the uterus after the formation of the embryo. The procedure was first introduced in 1981 and has been successfully used to give birth to over 200,000 babies. The drug called Clomiphene or Clomid and Serophene are highly recommended treatments for infertility problems.

Improper function of the hypothalamus or pituitary glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that maintain normal testicular function. Production of too much prolactin, a hormone made by the pituitary gland (often due to the presence of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or other conditions that damage or impair the function of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may result in low or no sperm production.
Cinnamon is one of the best remedies for dealing with infertility in women. It not only improves ovarian functioning but also combats other conditions that lead to infertility, such as Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Cinnamon also regulates the menstrual cycle and improves your fertility in a simple and easy way. For this remedy, take a cup of hot water and add a teaspoon of powdered cinnamon to it. Mix well and drink this solution once every day.
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